Risk factors for post-COVID-19 condition in previously hospitalised children using the ISARIC Global follow-up protocol: a prospective cohort study
Osmanov IM., Spiridonova E., Bobkova P., Gamirova A., Shikhaleva A., Andreeva M., Blyuss O., El-Taravi Y., DunnGalvin A., Comberiati P., Peroni DG., Apfelbacher C., Genuneit J., Mazankova L., Miroshina A., Chistyakova E., Samitova E., Borzakova S., Bondarenko E., Korsunskiy AA., Konova I., Hanson SW., Carson G., Sigfrid L., Scott JT., Greenhawt M., Whittaker EA., Garralda E., Swann OV., Buonsenso D., Nicholls DE., Simpson F., Jones C., Semple MG., Warner JO., Vos T., Olliaro P., Munblit D.
BackgroundThe long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children remain poorly characterised. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes in children previously hospitalised with COVID-19 and associated risk factors.MethodsThis is a prospective cohort study of children (≤18 years old) admitted to hospital with confirmed COVID-19. Children admitted between 2 April 2020 and 26 August 2020 were included. Telephone interviews used the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 Health and Wellbeing Follow-up Survey for Children. Persistent symptoms (>5 months) were further categorised by system(s) involved.Results518 out of 853 (61%) eligible children were available for the follow-up assessment and included in the study. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) age was 10.4 (3–15.2) years and 270 (52.1%) were girls. Median (IQR) follow-up since hospital discharge was 256 (223–271) days. At the time of the follow-up interview 126 (24.3%) participants reported persistent symptoms, among which fatigue (53, 10.7%), sleep disturbance (36, 6.9%) and sensory problems (29, 5.6%) were the most common. Multiple symptoms were experienced by 44 (8.4%) participants. Risk factors for persistent symptoms were: older age “6–11 years” (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.37–5.75) and “12–18 years” (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.41–5.4), and a history of allergic diseases (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04–2.67).ConclusionsA quarter of children experienced persistent symptoms months after hospitalisation with acute COVID-19 infection, with almost one in 10 experiencing multisystem involvement. Older age and allergic diseases were associated with higher risk of persistent symptoms at follow-up.