Efficacy of ChAdOx1 vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern Beta, Delta and Omicron in the Syrian hamster model.
van Doremalen N., Schulz JE., Adney DR., Saturday TA., Fischer RJ., Yinda CK., Thakur N., Newman J., Ulaszewska M., Belij-Rammerstorfer S., Saturday G., Spencer AJ., Bailey D., Gilbert SC., Lambe T., Munster VJ.
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) is a replication-deficient simian adenovirusâ€"vectored vaccine encoding the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, based on the first published full-length sequence (Wuhan-1). AZD1222 was shown to have 74% vaccine efficacy (VE) against symptomatic disease in clinical trials and over 2.5 billion doses of vaccine have been released for worldwide use. However, SARS-CoV-2 continues to circulate and consequently, variants of concern (VoCs) have been detected, with substitutions in the S protein that are associated with a reduction in virus neutralizing antibody titer. Updating vaccines to include S proteins of VoCs may be beneficial over boosting with vaccines encoding the ancestral S protein, even though current real-world data is suggesting good efficacy against hospitalization and death following boosting with vaccines encoding the ancestral S protein. Using the Syrian hamster model, we evaluated the effect of a single dose of AZD2816, encoding the S protein of the Beta VoC, and efficacy of AZD1222/AZD2816 as a heterologous primary series against challenge with the Beta or Delta variant. We then investigated the efficacy of a single dose of AZD2816 or AZD1222 against the Omicron VoC. As seen previously, minimal to no viral sgRNA could be detected in lungs of vaccinated animals obtained at 5 days post inoculation, in contrast to lungs of control animals. Thus, these vaccination regimens are protective against the Beta, Delta, and Omicron VoCs in the hamster model.