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Manufacturing has been the key factor limiting rollout of vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic, requiring rapid development and large-scale implementation of novel manufacturing technologies. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222, Vaxzevria) is an efficacious vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, based upon an adenovirus vector. We describe the development of a process for the production of this vaccine and others based upon the same platform, including novel features to facilitate very large-scale production. We discuss the process economics and the "distributed manufacturing" approach we have taken to provide the vaccine at globally-relevant scale and with international security of supply. Together, these approaches have enabled the largest viral vector manufacturing campaign to date, providing a substantial proportion of global COVID-19 vaccine supply at low cost.

Original publication




Journal article


Biotechnology and bioengineering

Publication Date





48 - 58


Nuffield Department of Medicine, Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.


Animals, Humans, Pan troglodytes, Escherichia coli, Vaccination, Technology, Pharmaceutical, Geography, Drug Industry, HEK293 Cells, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 Vaccines, Vaccine Development, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19