Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

ObjectivesTo identify most vital input and outcome parameters required for evaluations of training and education interventions aimed at addressing infectious diseases in low-income and middle-income countries.DesignSystematic review.Data sourcesPubMed/Medline, Web of Science and Scopus were searched for eligible studies between January 2000 and November 2021.Study selectionHealth economic and health-outcome studies on infectious diseases covering an education or training intervention in low-income and middle-income countries were included.ResultsA total of 59 eligible studies covering training or education interventions for infectious diseases were found; infectious diseases were categorised as acute febrile infections (AFI), non-AFI and other non-acute infections. With regard to input parameters, the costs (direct and indirect) were most often reported. As outcome parameters, five categories were most often reported including final health outcomes, intermediate health outcomes, cost outcomes, prescription outcomes and health economic outcomes. Studies showed a wide range of per category variables included and a general lack of uniformity across studies.ConclusionsFurther standardisation is needed on the relevant input and outcome parameters in this field. A more standardised approach would improve generalisability and comparability of results and allow policy-makers to make better informed decisions on the most effective and cost-effective interventions.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ open

Publication Date





University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Health Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands


Humans, Developing Countries, Poverty, Income, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Disease Management