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While rodents are primary reservoirs of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), their role in Madariaga virus (MADV) transmission remains uncertain, particularly given their overlapping geographic distribution. This study explores the interplay of alphavirus prevalence, rodent diversity, and land use within Darien and Western Panama provinces. A total of three locations were selected for rodent sampling in Darien province: Los Pavitos, El Real de Santa Maria and Santa Librada. Two sites were selected in Western Panama province: El Cacao and Cirí Grande. We used plaque reduction neutralization tests to assess MADV and VEEV seroprevalences in 599 rodents of 16 species across five study sites. MADV seroprevalence was observed at higher rates in Los Pavitos (Darien province), 9.0%, 95% CI: 3.6-17.6, while VEEV seroprevalence was elevated in El Cacao (Western Panama province), 27.3%, 95% CI: 16.1-40.9, and El Real de Santa María (Darien province), 20.4%, 95% CI: 12.6-29.7. Species like Oryzomys coesi, 23.1%, 95% CI: 5.0-53.8, and Transandinomys bolivaris, 20.0%, 95% CI: 0.5-71.6 displayed higher MADV seroprevalences than other species, whereas Transandinomys bolivaris, 80.0%, 95% CI: 28.3-99.4, and Proechimys semispinosus, 27.3%, 95% CI: 17.0-39.6, exhibited higher VEEV seroprevalences. Our findings provide support to the notion that rodents are vertebrate reservoirs of MADV and reveal spatial variations in alphavirus seropositivity among rodent species, with different provinces exhibiting distinct rates for MADV and VEEV. Moreover, specific rodent species are linked to unique seroprevalence patterns for these viruses, suggesting that rodent diversity and environmental conditions might play a significant role in shaping alphavirus distribution.

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