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The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 variant emerged in the Indian state of Maharashtra in late 2020. There have been fears that 2 key mutations seen in the receptor-binding domain, L452R and E484Q, would have additive effects on evasion of neutralizing antibodies. We report that spike bearing L452R and E484Q confers modestly reduced sensitivity to BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine-elicited antibodies following either first or second dose. The effect is similar in magnitude to the loss of sensitivity conferred by L452R or E484Q alone. These data demonstrate reduced sensitivity to vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies by L452R and E484Q but lack of synergistic loss of sensitivity.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date





989 - 994


Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology and Infectious Disease, Cambridge,United Kingdom.


CITIID-NIHR BioResource COVID-19 Collaboration, Indian SARS-CoV-2 Genomics Consortium, Genotype to Phenotype Japan (G2P-Japan) Consortium, Vero Cells, Animals, Humans, Serine Endopeptidases, Antibodies, Viral, Protein Binding, Mutation, India, Immune Evasion, Antibodies, Neutralizing, HEK293 Cells, Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus, Chlorocebus aethiops, COVID-19, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 Vaccines, BNT162 Vaccine