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Madariaga virus (MADV) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) are emerging arboviruses affecting rural and remote areas of Latin America. However, there are limited clinical and epidemiological reports available, and outbreaks are occurring at an increasing frequency. We addressed this gap by analyzing all the available clinical and epidemiological data of MADV and VEEV infections recorded since 1961 in Panama. A total of 168 of human alphavirus encephalitis cases were detected in Panama from 1961 to 2023. Here we describe the clinical signs and symptoms and epidemiological characteristics of these cases, and also explored signs and symptoms as potential predictors of encephalitic alphavirus infection when compared to those of other arbovirus infections occurring in the region. Our results highlight the challenges clinical diagnosis of alphavirus disease in endemic regions with overlapping circulation of multiple arboviruses.

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Journal article



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Madariaga Virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, alphaviruses, outbreak investigation