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introduction It is known that knowledge, awareness, and practice influence diabetic control. We compared factors pertaining to healthy lifestyle (exercising, avoiding smoking), self-help (attending appointments, following treatment regimens), and diabetic awareness in high-risk patients for diabetic complications, specifically, those on insulin versus non-insulin treatment, and also those with a longer diabetic duration (≥5 years) versus a shorter duration. Methods 200 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes (52.0±11.6 years) attending diabetic clinic at a referral hospital in Nepal were recruited. A structured questionnaire explored non-clinical parameters including age, gender, diabetic duration, awareness about diabetes control, self-help, and lifestyle. Clinical data were also measured: HbA1c, fasting blood sugar (FBS), blood pressure, and treatment type (insulin, diet/tablet). Results A significantly higher proportion of patients on insulin (vs non-insulin) or with diabetic duration ≥5 years (vs <5 years) self-reported not doing regular exercise, forgetting to take medicine, and not knowing whether their diabetes was controlled (p≤0.005). HbA1c/FBS levels were significantly higher for patients on insulin or with a longer diabetic duration (p≤0.001). 92% of those on insulin (vs 31% on non-insulin) and 91% with diabetic duration ≥5 years (vs 28% of <5 years) self-reported to seeking medical help due to episodes of uncontrolled blood sugar in the last year (p<0.001). Conclusion Poor self-help/lifestyle and reduced knowledge/awareness about diabetic control was found in patients on insulin or with longer diabetic duration. This is a worrying finding as these patients are already at high risk for developing diabetic complications. The findings highlight need for targeting this more vulnerable group and provide more support/diabetic educational tools.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care

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