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Substantial uncertainties surround the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic techniques for urinary schistosomiasis. We used latent class (LC) modeling to address this problem. In this study, 220 adults in three villages northwest of Accra, Ghana were examined using five Schistosoma haematobium diagnostic measures: microscopic examination of urine for detection of S. haematobium eggs, dipsticks for detection of hematuria, tests for circulating antigens, antibody tests, and ultrasound scans of the urinary system. Testing of the LC model indicated non-invariance of the performance of the diagnostic tests across different age groups, and measurement invariance held for males and females and for the three villages. We therefore recommend the use of LC models for comparison between and the identification of the most accurate schistosomiasis diagnostic tests. Furthermore, microscopy and hematuria dipsticks were indicated through these models as the most appropriate techniques for detection of S. haematobium infection.

Original publication




Journal article


The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene

Publication Date





435 - 441


Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.


Animals, Humans, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosomiasis haematobia, Hematuria, Immunoglobulin G, Antibodies, Protozoan, Antigens, Protozoan, Microscopy, Ultrasonography, Likelihood Functions, Sensitivity and Specificity, Predictive Value of Tests, Adult, Middle Aged, Ghana, Female, Male, Young Adult